Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are two diseases that are quite prevalent today and are likely related. In an effort to integrate the probable pathogenetic processes shared by DM and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), type 3 diabetes was coined. Significant epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and dementia has emerged over the past decade.
Diabetes is associated with a higher risk of dementia when it is diagnosed early in life.
Diabetes remains a risk factor even for those over 85 years old, despite the fact that its impact is less pronounced in older age categories.
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are considered risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease because they can lead to neuronal mortality and increase the production of extracellular -amyloid deposits.
1-3 Excess-Amyloid can normally eliminate amyloid via the lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (which decreases in the presence of insulin resistance) or a degradation process involving the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE).
If persistent peripheral hyperinsulinemia persists, insulin will reduce insulin transfer across the blood-brain barrier.
Type 3 Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus (also known as diabetes or DM) is a disorder in which the body has difficulty converting sugar into energy.
Most individuals are familiar with three types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, and Type 2.
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a chronic health condition. The endocrine system of your pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, causing your blood glucose levels to rise excessively.
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a chronic condition. Your body develops insulin resistance, causing your blood sugar levels to skyrocket.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) results from abnormally elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Several investigations indicate that Alzheimer’s disease is a form of diabetes known as type 3 diabetes.
This “type 3 diabetes” is a term coined to reflect the theory that Alzheimer’s disease, a prominent cause of dementia, is caused by insulin resistance and malfunctioning insulin-like growth factor that occurs exclusively in the brain.
Some have used this term to refer to individuals with type 2 diabetes who self-identify as having Alzheimer’s disease dementia.
The diagnosis of diabetes type 3 is contested. It is not universally accepted by the medical community as a clinical diagnosis.
The condition previously referred to as “type 3 diabetes” Do not confuse it with diabetes mellitus type 3c.
The pancreas contains both endocrine and exocrine organs, each of which serves a specific purpose.
Insulin is a hormone produced and secreted by beta-islet cells in the Islets of Langerhans endocrine pancreatic tissue.
T3cDM occurs when the exocrine pancreas becomes ill and causes secondary harm to the endocrine pancreas, leading to diabetes mellitus. Among the exocrine pancreas pathologies that can lead to T3cDM are:
Exocrine pancreatic malignancy
The disease known as cystic fibrosis
The Relationship Between Diabetes and Alzheimer’s
Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes have already been linked, per the Mayo Clinic.
Brain insulin resistance has been associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is sometimes referred to as “brain diabetes.” This claim is supported by scientific evidence, albeit it is overly simplistic.
Untreated diabetes can result in severe complications, including those in the brain, over time.
Numerous patients with type 2 diabetes are oblivious of their condition, which can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment.
Consequently, individuals with type 2 diabetes, especially undiagnosed diabetes, are more likely to experience this form of damage.
Alzheimer’s disease can result from chemical imbalances in the brain caused by diabetes. Inflammation can also be caused by high blood glucose levels, which can damage brain cells.
Due to these factors, diabetes is recognised as a risk factor for vascular dementia.
Vascular dementia may be a distinct diagnosis with its own set of symptoms, or it may be a precursor to Alzheimer’s disease.
The scientific validity of this procedure is debatable. It has been demonstrated that Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia do not appear to be linked to insulin resistance at this time.
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